Greek

Γεια ! – Hello!

Greek has a documented history of over 3,400 years, which is the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. With fragmentary records dating back to the 15th or 14th century BC, it is also one of the world’s oldest recorded living languages.

The canon of ancient Greek literature includes works of monumental importance and influence such as the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey. Greek was also the language in which many of the foundational texts of Western philosophy, such as the Platonic dialogues and the works of Aristotle, were composed. The New Testament of the Christian Bible was written in Koiné Greek. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, the study of the Greek texts and society of antiquity constitutes the discipline of classics.

Modern Greek is full of inflexions, which makes it daunting to learn. All articles, adjective and nouns decline, while verbs conjugate, so there are many patterns to remember. It is spoken today by approximately 17–25 million people in Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Armenia, Bulgaria, Italy, Turkey, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Egypt, Jordan as well as in emigrant nations like Australia, the United States, Germany, and even Canada.

The (modern) Greek alphabet has 24 letters:

  • Α α  – like a in “father”
  • Β β –  like v “in over”
  • Δ δ  – like th in “there”
  • Ε ε  –  like e in “egg”
  • Ζ ζ  – like z in “zoo”
  • Η η  – like ee in “bee”
  • Θ θ –  like th in “theatre”
  • Ι ι   – like ee in “bee”
  • Κ κ –  like c in “car” before /o/ /u/ /a/. Palatalized before /e/ /i/
  • Λ λ  – like l in “law”
  • Μ μ  – like m in “man”
  • Ν ν  – like n in “no”
  • Ξ ξ  – like x in “ex”
  • Ο ο  – like o in “pot”
  • Π π –  not aspirated, like in Spanish
  • Ρ ρ  – like r in Spanish
  • Σ σ ς –  like s in “several”
  • Τ τ  – not aspirated, like in Spanish
  • Υ υ  – like ee in “bee”
  • Φ φ  – like f in “fox”
  • Ψ ψ – this is a diphthong, a “double” letter. It is read as /ps/
  • Ω ω  – like o in “pot”

 Numbers:

  1. ena – ένα
  2. dyo – δυο
  3. tria – τρία
  4. tessera – τέσσερα
  5. pente – πέντε
  6. eksi – έξι
  7. epta – επτά
  8. oktw – οκτώ
  9. ennea – εννέα
  10. deka – δέκα
  11. enteka – έντεκα
  12. dwdeka – δώδεκα
  13. dekatria – δεκατρία
  14. dekatessera – δεκατέσσερα
  15. dekapente – δεκαπέντε
  16. dekaeksi – δεκαέξι
  17. dekaepta – δεκαεπτά
  18. dekaoxtw – δεκαοχτώ
  19. dekaennea – δεκαεννέα
  20. eikosi – είκοσι

Colours:

  • black – mayro μαύρο
  • white – lefko λευκό
  • green – prasino πράσινο
  • red – kokkino κόκκινο
  • brown – kafe καφέ
  • orange – portokali πορτοκαλί
  • yellow –kitrino κίτρινο
  • blue – ble μπλε
  • grey – gkri γκρί
  • purple – mwv μωβ

 

Ευχαριστώ – Thank You

Γεια ! – Bye!